One of the pivotal events in neural development is compartmentalization, wherein the neural tissue divides into domains and undergoes functional differentiation. For example, midbrain-hindbrain boundary (MHB) formation and subsequent isthmus development are key steps in cerebellar development. Although several regulatory mechanisms are known to underlie this event, little is known about cellular behaviors. In this study, to examine the cellular dynamics around the MHB region, we performed confocal time-lapse imaging in zebrafish embryos to track cell populations in the neural tube via 4D analysis. We used a transgenic line wherein enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expression is driven by the gastrulation brain homeobox 2 (gbx2) enhancer, which is involved in MHB maintenance. 4D time-lapse imaging of 5-20 h revealed a novel pattern in cell migration: a dynamic ventrocaudally directed migration from the MHB region toward the hindbrain. Furthermore, in the hindbrain region, these EGFP-positive cells altered their shapes and extended the axons. Immunohistochemical analysis and retrograde labeling showed that these cells in the hindbrain were in the process of neuronal differentiation, including reticulospinal neurons. These results revealed the dynamic and two-step behavior and possible fate of the cell population, which are linked to brain compartmentalization, leading to a deeper understanding of brain development and formation of neuronal circuits.