Transient posterior cerebral arteriopathy: An unusual case enterovirus-related.

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Brain Dev.




Transient Cerebral Arteriopathy (TCA) is one of the main causes of childhood stroke. Here we present an unusual case of Arterial Ischemic Stroke (AIS) caused by a TCA of posterior flow and originally located in the right thalamus. The detection of enterovirus in the cerebrospinal fluid allowed us to suppose a probable post infectious etiology. The course of symptoms was self-limited and the child had a complete clinical recovery after five days. A new ischemic lesion on the antero-inferior paravermian region of the left cerebellum was revealed by a following brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) three months later and these findings were reported by further brain MRI control performed after 15 months. Comparing follow up Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) with previous High Resolution Vessel Wall Magnetic Resonance Imaging (HRMI), we found a vessel narrowing at the level of the Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery that might explain the arteriopathy process. In conclusion, clinical and radiological course allow us to speculate that this multifocal cerebral arteriopathy might be a transient lesion due to enterovirus infection. To our knowledge, there are only three articles describing TCA enterovirus-related, and brain MRA was performed in only one case; in addition, no one with the involvement of the posterior circulation.