Diffusion tensor histology holds great promise for quantitative characterization of structural connectivity in mouse models of neurological and psychiatric conditions. There has been extensive study in both the clinical and preclinical domains on the complex tradeoffs between the spatial resolution, the number of samples in diffusion q-space, scan time, and the reliability of the resultant data. We describe here a method for accelerating the acquisition of diffusion MRI data to support quantitative connectivity measurements in the whole mouse brain using compressed sensing (CS). The use of CS allows substantial increase in spatial resolution and/or reduction in scan time. Compared to the fully sampled results at the same scan time, the subtle anatomical details of the brain, such as cortical layers, dentate gyrus, and cerebellum, were better visualized using CS due to the higher spatial resolution. Compared to the fully sampled results at the same spatial resolution, the scalar diffusion metrics, including fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD), showed consistently low error across the whole brain (< 6.0%) even with 8.0 times acceleration. The node properties of connectivity (strength, cluster coefficient, eigenvector centrality, and local efficiency) demonstrated correlation of better than 95.0% between accelerated and fully sampled connectomes. The acceleration will enable routine application of this technology to a wide range of mouse models of neurologic diseases.
The reeler mouse (Reln) has been proposed as a neurodevelopmental model for certain neurological and psychiatric conditions and has been studied by qualitative histochemistry and electron microscopy. Using magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM), we have quantitated for the first time the neuromorphology of Reln mice at a resolution of 21.5 microm. The neuroanatomical phenotypes of heterozygous and homozygous mutant Reln mice were compared to those of wild type (WT) littermates using morphometry and texture analysis. The cortical, hippocampal, and cerebellar phenotypes of the heterozygous and homozygous mutant Reln mice were confirmed, and new features were revealed. The Reln(rl/rl) mice possessed a smaller brain, and both Reln(rl/+) and Reln(rl/rl) mice had increased ventricles compared to WT controls. Shape differences were found between WT and Reln(rl/rl) brains, specifically in cerebellum, olfactory bulbs, dorsomedial frontal and parietal cortex, certain regions of temporal and occipital lobes, as well as in the lateral ventricles and ventral hippocampus. These findings suggest that certain brain regions may be more severely impacted by the Reln mutation than others. Gadolinium-based active staining demonstrated that layers of the hippocampus were disorganized in Reln(rl/rl) mice and differences in thickness of these layers were identified between WT and Reln(rl/rl) mice. The intensity distributions characteristic to the dorsal, middle, and ventral hippocampus were altered in the Reln(rl/rl), especially in the ventral hippocampus. These differences were quantified using skewness and modeling the intensity distributions with a Gaussian mixture. Our results suggest that structural features of Reln(rl/rl) brain most closely phenocopy those of patients with Norman-Roberts lissencephaly.
A history of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), particularly repeated mTBI (rmTBI), has been identified as a risk factor for late-onset neurodegenerative conditions. The mild and transient nature of early symptoms often impedes diagnosis in young adults who are disproportionately affected by mTBIs. A proportion of the affected population will incur long-term behavioral and cognitive consequences but the underlying pathomechanism is currently unknown. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) provides sensitive and quantitative assessment of TBI-induced structural changes, including white matter injury, and may be used to predict long-term outcome. We used DTI in an animal model of blast rmTBI (rmbTBI) to quantify blast-induced structural changes at 7 and 90 days post-injury, and their evolution between the two time points. Young adult male rats (~P65 at injury) were exposed to repeated mild blast overpressure, or anesthetized as shams, and their fixed brains were imaged using high-field (7 T) MRI. We found that whole brain volumes similarly increased in injured and sham rats from 7 to 90 days. However, we detected localized volume increases in blast-exposed animals 7 days post-injury, mainly ipsilateral to incident blast waves. Affected regions included gray matter of the frontal association, cingulate, and motor cortex, thalamus, substantia nigra, and raphe nuclei (median and dorsal), as well as white matter of the internal capsule and cerebral peduncle. Conversely, we measured volume reductions in these and other regions, including the hippocampus and cerebellum, at 90 days post-injury. DTI also detected both transient and persistent microstructural changes following injury, with some changes showing distinct ipsilateral versus contralateral side differences relative to blast impact. Early changes in fractional anisotropy (FA) were subtle, becoming more prominent at 90 days in the cerebral and inferior cerebellar peduncles, and cerebellar white matter. Widespread increases in radial diffusivity (RD) and axial diffusivity (primary eigenvalue or E1) at 7 days post-injury largely subsided by 90 days, although RD was more sensitive than E1 at detecting white matter changes. E1 effects in gray and white matter, which paralleled increases in apparent diffusion, were likely more indicative of dysregulated water homeostasis than pathologic structural changes. Importantly, we found evidence for a different developmental trajectory following rmbTBI, as indicated by significant injury x age interactions on volume. Our findings demonstrate that rmbTBI initiates dynamic pathobiological processes that may negatively alter the course of late-stage neurodevelopment and adversely affect long-term cognitive and behavioral outcomes.