Due to concerns for enhanced absorption of manganese (Mn) from drinking water compared to diet, bioavailability of Mn from drinking water remains a major data gap in understanding Mn kinetics. In this study, PBPK models for adult rats and humans were updated with a drinking water exposure route and were used to assess the homeostatic control of Mn uptake, excretion and tissue kinetics between the two different ingestion modes. Drinking water model parameters were estimated from tissue kinetic data from a drinking water study in rats. The published study included a 10 ppm-Mn diet with additional Mn added to drinking water to give a total ingested Mn dose equivalent to that from a 200 ppm diet. The 200 ppm diet and equivalent mixed drinking water/diet exposures provided Mn concentrations for brain (striatum, olfactory bulb, and cerebellum), liver and bone after 7 and 61 days of Mn exposure. Modeling of these data sets indicated that (1) the oral Mn bioavailability is similar for diet or drinking water and (2) homeostatic control of gut uptake of Mn occurs with either drinking water or dietary ingestion. This updated description for absorption and distribution of Mn from gut was added to a human Mn-PBPK model to simulate Mn exposure from multiple routes of exposure (i.e. dietary intake, drinking water, and inhalation). This increases the utility of the Mn PBPK model by allowing for the simulation of multiple Mn exposure scenarios, including variable daily food and drinking water exposures in a human population.
Concerns exist as to whether individuals may be at greater risk for neurotoxicity following increased manganese (Mn) oral intake. The goals of this study were to determine the equivalence of 3 methods of oral exposure and the rate (mg Mn/kg/day) of exposure. Adult male rats were allocated to control diet (10 ppm), high manganese diet (200 ppm), manganese-supplemented drinking water, and manganese gavage treatment groups. Animals in the drinking water and gavage groups were given the 10 ppm manganese diet and supplemented with manganese chloride (MnCl(2)) in drinking water or once-daily gavage to provide a daily manganese intake equivalent to that seen in the high-manganese diet group. No statistically significant difference in body weight gain or terminal body weights was seen. Rats were anesthetized following 7 and 61 exposure days, and samples of bile and blood were collected. Rats were then euthanized and striatum, olfactory bulb, frontal cortex, cerebellum, liver, spleen, and femur samples were collected for chemical analysis. Hematocrit was unaffected by manganese exposure. Liver and bile manganese concentrations were elevated in all treatment groups on day 61 (relative to controls). Increased cerebellum manganese concentrations were seen in animals from the high-manganese diet group (day 61, relative to controls). Increased (relative to all treatment groups) femur, striatum, cerebellum, frontal cortex, and olfactory bulb manganese concentrations were also seen following gavage suggesting that dose rate is an important factor in the pharmacokinetics of oral manganese. These data will be used to refine physiologically based pharmacokinetic models, extending their utility for manganese risk assessment by including multiple dietary exposures.