The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the detection of cerebellar hypoperfusion in patients with spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD). Regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) were obtained from ASL and I-IMP single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images by volume-of-interest analysis in patients with SCD (n = 16). Regional CBF were also measured by ASL in age-matched controls (n = 19) and by SPECT in separate controls (n = 17). The cerebellar CBF values were normalized to the CBF values for the whole gray matter (nCBF) in ASL and SPECT. The mean cerebellar nCBF measured by ASL was lower in patients with SCD (0.70 ± 0.09) than in the controls (0.91 ± 0.05) (p < 0.001), which was consistent with the comparison using SPECT (0.82 ± 0.05 vs. 0.98 ± 0.05, p < 0.001). The cerebellar nCBF measured by ASL significantly correlated with that determined by SPECT in patients (r = 0.56, p < 0.001). ASL imaging showed decreased cerebellar blood flow, which correlated with that measured by SPECT, in patients with SCD. These findings suggest the clinical utility of noninvasive MRI with ASL for detecting cerebellar hypoperfusion in addition to atrophy, which would aid the diagnosis of SCD.
Prazosin, a potent and selective α-adrenoceptor antagonist, displaces 25% of C-CUMI-101 ([O-methyl-C]2-(4-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl)butyl)-4-methyl-1,2,4-triazine-3,5(2H,4H)dione) binding in monkey cerebellum. We sought to estimate the percentage contamination of C-CUMI-101 binding to α-adrenoceptors in human cerebellum under in vivo conditions. In vitro receptor-binding techniques were used to measure α-adrenoceptor density and the affinity of CUMI-101 for these receptors in human, monkey, and rat cerebellum. Binding potential (maximum number of binding sites × affinity [(1/dissociation constant]) was determined using in vitro homogenate binding assays in human, monkey, and rat cerebellum. H-prazosin was used to determine the maximum number of binding sites, as well as the dissociation constant of H-prazosin and the inhibition constant of CUMI-101. α-adrenoceptor density and the affinity of CUMI-101 for these receptors were similar across species. Cerebellar binding potentials were 3.7 for humans, 2.3 for monkeys, and 3.4 for rats. Reasoning by analogy, 25% of C-CUMI-101 uptake in human cerebellum reflects binding to α-adrenoceptors, suggesting that the cerebellum is of limited usefulness as a reference tissue for quantification in human studies.
Alzheimer disease (AD) is associated with an increase in the brain of the 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO), which is overexpressed in activated microglia and reactive astrocytes. Measuring the density of TSPO with PET typically requires absolute quantitation with arterial blood sampling, because a reference region devoid of TSPO does not exist in the brain. We sought to determine whether a simple ratio method could substitute for absolute quantitation of binding with (11)C-PBR28, a second-generation radioligand for TSPO. (11)C-PBR28 PET imaging was performed in 21 healthy controls, 11 individuals with mild cognitive impairment, and 25 AD patients. Group differences in (11)C-PBR28 binding were compared using 2 methods. The first was the gold standard method of calculating total distribution volume (V(T)), using the 2-tissue-compartment model with the arterial input function, corrected for plasma-free fraction of radiotracer (f(P)). The second method used a ratio of brain uptake in target regions to that in cerebellum-that is, standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR). Using absolute quantitation, we confirmed that TSPO binding (V(T)/f(P)) was greater in AD patients than in healthy controls in expected temporoparietal regions and was not significantly different among the 3 groups in the cerebellum. When the cerebellum was used as a pseudo-reference region, the SUVR method detected greater binding in AD patients than controls in the same regions as absolute quantification and in 1 additional region, suggesting SUVR may have greater sensitivity. Coefficients of variation of SUVR measurements were about two-thirds lower than those of absolute quantification, and the resulting statistical significance was much higher for SUVR when comparing AD and healthy controls (e.g., P < 0.0005 for SUVR vs. P = 0.023 for VT/fP in combined middle and inferior temporal cortex). To measure TSPO density in AD patients and control subjects, a simple ratio method SUVR can substitute for, and may even be more sensitive than, absolute quantitation. The SUVR method is expected to improve subject tolerability by allowing shorter scanning time and not requiring arterial catheterization. In addition, this ratio method allows smaller sample sizes for comparable statistical significance because of the relatively low variability of the ratio values.
To clarify the role of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) in living patients, positron emission tomography (PET) with [(62)Cu]diacetyl-bis(N(4)-methylthiosemicarbazone) ([(62)Cu]ATSM) was applied to functional imaging of oxidative stress mainly due to mitochondrial dysfunction in the striata of patients with PD. Fifteen PD patients who presented with lateral dominant symptoms at onset and six healthy controls underwent [(62)Cu]ATSM PET. Dynamic PET data acquisition was performed, and standardized uptake values (SUVs) were obtained from the delayed phase of dynamic data by means of region of interest analysis. The striatum-to-cerebellum SUV ratio (S/C ratio) was calculated from the SUV in all subjects of the striatum and the cerebellar cortex. The mean S/C ratio of the bilateral striata of the patients (1.15±0.10) was significantly increased compared with that of the controls (1.08±0.02) (P<.05). In the patients, the S/C ratio of the bilateral striata showed a positive correlation with the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) rating (r=0.52, P<.05), and the S/C ratio of the striatum contralateral to the initially affected body side showed a strong positive correlation with the UPDRS rating (r=0.62, P<.05). [(62)Cu]ATSM PET imaging demonstrated that striatal oxidative stress was enhanced in PD patients compared with the controls and increased with the progression of disease severity, particularly in the contralateral striatum. These findings indicated that oxidative stress associates with striatal neurodegeneration in PD.
Crossed cerebellar hyperperfusion (CCH) is detected in patients with epilepsy by brain perfusion studies including single photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography. In addition, brain perfusion can be studied with arterial spin labeling (ASL), which is a non-invasive MRI perfusion method that quantitatively measures cerebral blood flow per unit tissue mass. We followed up a 47-year-old patient with mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) by continuous arterial spin labeling technique, which showed crossed cerebellar hyperperfusion after acute stroke-like episode. This cerebellar hyperperfusion normalized in the follow-up.
This study sought to precisely evaluate striatal oxidative stress and its relationship with the disease severity in Parkinson's disease (PD) using double brain imaging, 62Cu-diacetyl-bis (N4-methylthiosemicarbazone) (62Cu-ATSM) PET and 123I-FP-CIT SPECT. Nine PD patients were studied with brain 62Cu-ATSM PET for oxidative stress and 123I-FP-CIT SPECT for the density of striatal dopamine transporter. Standardized uptake values (SUVs) were obtained from the delayed phase of dynamic 62Cu-ATSM PET, and striatum-to-cerebellum SUV ratio (SUVR) was calculated. To correct the effect of neuronal loss in the striatum, 62Cu-ATSM SUVR was corrected for striatal specific binding ratio (SBR) values of 123I-FP-CIT (SUVR/SBR). 62Cu-ATSM SUVR without correction was not significantly correlated with disease severity estimated by the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) scores or 123I-FP-CIT SBR. In contrast, the SUVR/SBR showed significant correlations with the UPDRS total and motor scores, and 123I-FP-CIT SBR. Oxidative stress in the remaining striatal dopaminergic neurons estimated by SUVR/SBR was increased with disease severity in PD patients, suggesting that oxidative stress based on mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to promoting dopaminergic neuronal degeneration in PD. 62Cu-ATSM PET with 123I-FP-CIT SPECT correction would be a promising tool to evaluate dopaminergic neuronal oxidative stress in PD.