The cerebellum plays an important role in depression. Cerebro-cerebellar circuits have been found to show aberrance in bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). However, whether the cerebro-cerebellar connectivity contributes equally to the pathologic mechanisms of BD and MDD remains unknown. We recruited 33 patients with MDD, 32 patients with BD, and 43 healthy controls (HC). We selected six seed regions (three per hemisphere) in the cerebrum, corresponding to the affective, cognitive control, and default mode networks, to establish cerebro-cerebellar functional connectivity maps. Relative to the HC, both the BD and MDD patients exhibited weaker negative connectivity between the right subgenual anterior cingulate cortex and the cerebellar vermis IV_V (p = 0.03, p = 0.001) and weaker positive connectivity between the left precuneus and the left cerebellar lobule IX (p = 0.043, p = 0.000). Moreover, the MDD patients showed weaker positive connectivity in the left precuneus-left cerebellar lobule IX circuit than the BD patients (p = 0.049). In addition, the BD patients showed weaker positive connectivity in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex-left cerebellar lobule Crus Ι circuit compared to the HC (p = 0.002) or the MDD patients (p = 0.013). Receiver operating characteristic curves analyses showed that the altered cerebro-cerebellar connectivities could be used to distinguish the patients from the HC with relatively high accuracy. Our findings suggested that differences in connectivity of cerebro-cerebellar circuits, which are involved in affective or cognitive functioning, significantly contributed to BD and MDD.
Disturbed hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis function, which leads to excessive and prolonged hypercortisolemia, is a core feature of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the relationships between depression, brain structure and function, and cortisol levels are unclear. The current study examined the whole-brain functional connectivity pattern of patients with MDD and evaluated the association between functional connectivity and serum cortisol levels in MDD. A total of 93 unmedicated patients with MDD and 139 healthy control subjects underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Voxel-wise whole-brain connectivity was analyzed by using a graph theory approach: functional connectivity strength (FCS). A seed-based resting-state functional connectivity analysis was further performed to investigate abnormal functional connectivity patterns of those regions with changed FCS. Morning blood samples were drawn for cortisol measurements in some subjects (including 53 MDD patients and 30 controls). The MDD patients had a significantly lower FCS in the left posterior lobes of the cerebellum (mainly lobule Crus II) (p < 0.05, TFCE corrected). The seed-based functional connectivity analysis revealed decreased functional connectivity between the left posterior cerebellum and the left medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) (p < 0.05, TFCE corrected). Moreover, the functional connectivity between the left posterior cerebellum and the left medial OFC were significantly positively correlated with the serum cortisol levels in MDD patients. Our results suggest that cerebellar dysconnectivity, in particular distributed cerebellar-OFC functional connectivity, may be associated with serum cortisol levels in MDD patients.
Missing in metastasis (MIM) gene encodes a putative metastasis suppressor. However, the role of MIM in tumorigenesis and metastasis has not yet been established. Western blot analysis using a MIM specific antibody demonstrated that MIM protein is present at varying levels in a variety of normal cells as well as tumor cell lines. Immunohistochemical staining of adult mouse tissues revealed abundant MIM immunoreactivity in uroepithelial cells in the bladder, neuron Purkinje cells in the cerebellum, and megakaryocytes in the bone marrow and spleen in addition. MIM immunoreactivity also was found in human normal bladder transitional epithelial cells. However, the reactivity was not seen in 69 percent of human primary transitional cell carcinoma specimens. Over 51 percent of the tumors at low grade display MIM staining similarly to the normal cells, whereas only 16.7 percent of the tumors at high-grade with poor differentiation show faint or mild staining. Furthermore, full-length MIM protein is highly expressed in SV-HUC-L an immortalized normal transitional epithelial cell line, moderately expressed in T24 and poorly expressed in J82 and TCCSUP transitional cell carcinoma cells. This finding indicates that downegulation of MIM expression may correlate with the transition of tumor cells from distinct epithelium-like morphology to less differentiated carcinomas.
The orphan glutamate receptor delta2 is selectively expressed in Purkinje cells and plays a crucial role in cerebellar functions. Recently, ataxia in the hotfoot mouse ho4J was demonstrated to be caused by a deletion in the delta2 receptor gene (Grid2) removing the N-terminal 170 amino acids of the delta2 receptor. To understand how delta2 receptors function, we characterized mutations in eight additional spontaneously occurring hotfoot alleles of Grid2. The mouse Grid2 gene consists of 16 exons, spanning approximately 1.4 Mb. Genomic DNA analysis showed that seven hotfoot mutants had a deletion of one or more exons encoding the N-terminal domain of delta2 receptors. The exception is ho5J, which has a point mutation in exon 12. Deletions in ho7J, ho9J, ho11J and ho12J mice result in the in-frame deletion of between 40 and 95 amino acids. Expression of constructs containing these deletions in HEK293 cells resulted in protein retention in the endoplasmic reticulum or cis-Golgi without transport to the cell surface. Coimmunoprecipitation assays indicated that these deletions also reduce the intermolecular interaction between individual delta2 receptors. These results indicate that the deleted N-terminal regions are crucial for oligomerization of delta2 receptors and their subsequent transport to the cell surface of Purkinje cells. The relatively large size of the Grid2 gene may be one of the reasons why many spontaneous mutations occur in this gene. In addition, the frequent occurrence of in-frame deletions within the N-terminal domain in hotfoot mutants suggests the importance of this domain in the function of delta2 receptors.
beta-1,3-galactosyltransferase-1 (beta3GalT-1) is the key enzyme to form the type 1 chain structure. Northern blot analysis indicated that beta3GalT-1 was expressed predominantly in the brain. In the present study, it was revealed that the gene expression of beta3GalT-1 in mouse brain was developmentally decreased. High expression levels of beta3GalT-1 were found in cerebral cortex and hippocampus in both newborn and adult mice, while in cerebellum, the expression levels decreased markedly during development. In situ hybridization revealed that the absence of expression in cerebellar granual cell layers contributed to the main loss of beta3GalT-1 expression in adult mouse cerebellum. Moreover, the decreased levels of beta3GalT-1 could affect the synthesis of type 1 chain oligosaccharides, as revealed by immunohistochemistry analysis.
Nogo-A is known to be a myelin-associated protein with strong inhibitory effect on neurite outgrowth and has been considered one of the major factors that hinder fiber regeneration in the central nervous system. Recent studies have demonstrated widespread occurrence of nogo-A mRNA and Nogo-A protein in neurons. Our concurrent immunohistochemical study substantiated the widespread distribution of neuronal Nogo-A. The present study was thus focused on its intraneuronal distribution in the central nervous system, using Western blotting, immunohistochemical, and immunogold electron microscopic techniques. Western blotting of the nucleus, cytoplasm, and membrane subcellular fractions of the cerebellum and spinal cord tissues demonstrated that all three fractions contained Nogo-A. Nogo-A immunoreactivity could be identified under confocal microscope in the nucleus, perikayon, and proximal dendrite and along the cell membrane. Under the electron microscope, the perikaryonal Nogo-A immunogold particles were mainly distributed at polyribosomes and rough endoplasmic reticulum, suggesting its relationship with translation process. The immunogold particles could also be found beneath or on the plasma membrane. In the nucleus, the Nogo-A immunogold particles were found to be localized at the chromatins of the nucleus, indicating its possible involvement in gene transcription. The presence of Nogo-A in the nucleus was further supported by transfection of COS-7L cells with nogo-A. This study provides the first immunocytochemical evidence for intraneuronal distribution of Nogo-A. Apparently, the significance of Nogo-A in the central nervous system is far more complex than what has been envisioned.
Medulloblastomas represent about 25% of all pediatric intracranial neoplasms. These highly malignant tumors arise from the cerebellum, affecting mainly children between ages 5 and 15. Although the etiology of medulloblastomas has not yet been elucidated, several reports suggest that both the cellular protein insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and the early protein of the human polyomavirus JC (JCV T antigen) may contribute to the development of these tumors. The results of this study show a potential functional cooperation between these two proteins in the process of malignant transformation. Both medulloblastoma cell lines and medulloblastoma biopsies are characterized by the abundant presence of the IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) and its major signaling molecule, insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1). Importantly, IRS-1 is translocated to the nucleus in the presence of the JCV T antigen. Nuclear IRS-1 was detected in T antigen-positive cell lines and in T antigen-positive biopsies from patients diagnosed with medulloblastoma. The IRS-1 domain responsible for a direct JCV T antigen binding was localized within the N-terminal portion of IRS-1 molecule and the competition for IRS-1 T antigen binding by a dominant-negative mutant of IRS-1 inhibited growth and survival of JCV T antigen-transformed cells in anchorage-independent culture condition.
Purpose To investigate the whole-brain intrinsic functional connectivity patterns of patients with bipolar disorder (BD). Materials and Methods This prospective study was approved by the research ethics committee, and all participants provided informed consent. Thirty-seven patients with nonmedicated BD II depression and 37 healthy control participants underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Whole-brain connectivity was analyzed by using a graph theory approach: functional connectivity strength (FCS). Clinical state was assessed by using the 24-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Young Mania Rating Scale. Two-sample t test and nonparametric correlation analysis were used. Results Compared with healthy control participants, patients with BD II showed decreased FCS in the default mode network (ie, the bilateral medial prefrontal cortex, bilateral middle temporal gyrus, left precuneus, and right posterior cingulate cortex), right supramarginal gyrus and angular gyrus, right superior frontal gyrus, and right superior parietal gyrus and increased FCS in the bilateral temporal pole (including the parahippocampal gyrus and amygdale), left anterior cingulate cortex, left superior temporal gyrus, right lingual gyrus, and left anterior lobe of the cerebellum (P < .05; AlphaSim corrected). Conclusion These results suggest that patients with BD have disrupted intrinsic functional connectivity mainly in the default mode network and limbic system, which might be associated with the pathophysiologic structure of BD. (©) RSNA, 2016.
This Study observed the relevant brain areas activated by acupuncture at the Taichong acupoint (LR3) and analyzed the functional connectivity among brain areas using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore the acupoint specificity of the Taichong acupoint. A total of 45 healthy subjects were randomly divided into the Taichong (LR3) group, sham acupuncture group and sham acupoint group. Subjects received resting state fMRI before acupuncture, after true (sham) acupuncture in each group. Analysis of changes in connectivity among the brain areas was performed using the brain functional connectivity method. The right cerebrum temporal lobe was selected as the seed point to analyze the functional connectivity. It had a functional connectivity with right cerebrum superior frontal gyrus, limbic lobe cingulate gyrus and left cerebrum inferior temporal gyrus (BA 37), inferior parietal lobule compared by before vs. after acupuncture at LR3, and right cerebrum sub-lobar insula and left cerebrum middle frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus compared by true vs. sham acupuncture at LR3, and right cerebrum occipital lobe cuneus, occipital lobe sub-gyral, parietal lobe precuneus and left cerebellum anterior lobe culmen by acupuncture at LR3 vs. sham acupoint. Acupuncture at LR3 mainly specifically activated the brain functional network that participates in visual function, associative function, and emotion cognition, which are similar to the features on LR3 in tradition Chinese medicine. These brain areas constituted a neural network structure with specific functions that had specific reference values for the interpretation of the acupoint specificity of the Taichong acupoint.
Metastasis suppressor 1 (MTSS1) or missing in metastasis (MIM) is an actin- and membrane-binding protein with tumor suppressor functions. MTSS1 is important for cell morphology, motility, metastasis. The role of MTSS1 in cell morphology has been widely investigated in non-neuronal tissues; however the role of MTSS1 in neurite outgrowth remains unclear. Here we investigated the effect of MTSS1 on neurite outgrowth in primary cerebellar granule and hippocampal neurons of mouse. We found that overexpression of MTSS1 in cerebellar granule neurons significantly enhanced dendrite elaboration but inhibited axon elongation. This phenotype was significantly reduced by deletion of the Wiskott-Aldrich homology 2 (WH2) motif and point mutation in the insulin receptor substrate p53 (IRSp53) and MIM/MTSS1 homology (IMD) domain. Furthermore, inhibition of Rac1 activity or blocking of phosphatidyl inositol phosphates (PIPs) signaling decreased the effect of MTSS1 markedly. In accordance with the over-expression data, knockdown of MTSS1 in cerebellar granule neurons could increase the axon length but decrease the dendrite length and the number of dendrites. In addition, MTSS1 knock down in embryonic hippocampal neurons suppressed neurite branching and reduced dendrite length. Our findings have demonstrated that MTSS1 modulates neuronal morphology, possibly through a Rac1-PIPs signaling pathway.
GDF-15 (growth/differentiation factor 15) is a novel member of the TGF (transforming growth factor)-β superfamily that has critical roles in the central and peripheral nervous systems. We reported previously that GDF-15 increased delayed rectifier outward K(+) currents and Kv2.1 α subunit expression through TβRII (TGF-β receptor II) to activate Src kinase and Akt/mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signalling in rat CGNs (cerebellar granule neurons). In the present study, we found that treatment of CGNs with GDF-15 for 24 h increased the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in response to membrane depolarization, as determined by Ca(2+) imaging. Whole-cell current recordings indicated that GDF-15 increased the inward Ca(2+) current (ICa) without altering steady-state activation of Ca(2+) channels. Treatment with nifedipine, an inhibitor of L-type Ca(2+) channels, abrogated GDF-15-induced increases in [Ca(2+)]i and ICa The GDF-15-induced increase in ICa was mediated via up-regulation of the Cav1.3 α subunit, which was attenuated by inhibiting Akt/mTOR and ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) pathways and by pharmacological inhibition of Src-mediated TβRII phosphorylation. Given that Cav1.3 is not only a channel for Ca(2+) influx, but also a transcriptional regulator, our data confirm that GDF-15 induces protein expression via TβRII and activation of a non-Smad pathway, and provide novel insight into the mechanism of GDF-15 function in neurons.
The therapeutic effects of acupuncture in decreasing blood pressure are ambiguous and underlying acupuncture in hypertension treatment has not been investigated. Our objective was to observe the change of quality of life and compare the differences in brain functional connectivity by investigating instantaneous and short-term acupuncture treatment in essential hypertension patients. A total of 30 patients were randomly divided into the LR3 group and sham acupoint group. Subjects received resting-state fMRI among preacupuncture, postinstantaneous, and short-term acupuncture treatment in two groups. Hypothalamus was selected as the seed point to analyze the changes in connectivity. We found three kinds of results: (1) There was statistical difference in systolic blood pressure in LR3 group after the short-term treatment and before acupuncture. (2) Compared with sham acupoint, acupuncture at LR3 instantaneous effects in the functional connectivity with seed points was more concentrated in the frontal lobe. (3) Compared with instantaneous effects, acupuncture LR3 short-term effects in the functional connectivity with seed points had more regions in frontal lobe, cerebellum, and insula. These brain areas constituted a neural network structure with specific functions that could explain the mechanism of therapy in hypertension patients by LR3 acupoint.
Depression in the context of bipolar disorder (BD) is often misdiagnosed as unipolar depression (UD), leading to mistreatment and poor clinical outcomes. However, little is known about the similarities and differences in cerebellum between BD and UD. Patients with BD (n=35) and UD (n=30) during a depressive episode as well as 40 healthy controls underwent diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) and three dimensional arterial spin labeling (3D ASL). The DKI parameters including mean kurtosis (MK), axial kurtosis (Ka), radial kurtosis (Kr),fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (Da) and radial diffusivity (Dr) and 3D ASL parameters (i.e. cerebral blood flow) was measured by using regions-of-interest (ROIs) analysis in the superior cerebellar peduncles (SCP), middle cerebellar peduncles (MCP) and dentate nuclei (DN) of cerebellum. Patients with UD exhibited significant differences from controls for DKI measures in bilateral SCP and MCP and cerebral blood flow (CBF) in bilateral SCP and left DN. Patients with BD exhibited significant differences from controls for DKI measures in the right MCP and left DN and CBF in the left DN. Patients with UD showed significantly lower MD values compared with patients with BD in the right SCP. Correlation analysis showed there were negative correlations between illness duration and MD and Dr values in the right SCP in UD. This study was cross-sectional and the sample size was not large. Parts of the patients included were under medication prior to MRI scanning. Our findings provide new evidence of microstructural changes in cerebellum in BD and UD. The two disorders may have overlaps in microstructural abnormality in MCP and DN during the depressive period. Microstructural abnormality in SCP may be a key neurobiological feature of UD.
To measure gray matter volume of whole brain with voxel-based morphometry (VBM) method and to study brain structures associated with gross motor function. Forty children with cerebral palsy were recruited in the authors' hospital from Oct. 2012 to Dec. 2013 (26 male, 14 female cases, average age (3.6 ± 2.0) years ). Gross motor function classification system (GMFCS) for children was used to obtain their motor function. The whole-brain three dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on a 3.0 T MRI scanner. The data were segmented by VBM 5, and the whole brain volumes of gray matter, white matter and cerebospinal fluid were produced. Correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlation of GMFCS with whole brain volumes using SPM 5 in Matalab 7.1. The volume in left meditemporal gyrus (Z=3.57) and inferior temporal gyrus (Z=3.40), right thalamus and pallidum (Z=3.36), left thalamus and pallidum (Z=2.76), left supramarginal gyrus (Z=3.14), left precuneus gyrus (Z=3.00), right dorsolateral superior frontal gyrus (Z=3.08), right superior and medial occipital gyrus (Z=2.84) significantly increased as aggravation of gross motor dysfunction. The volume of the left medial orbitofrontal lobe and anterior cingulate (Z=3.28,3.02), left medial superior frontal gyrus (Z=3.19), left caudate (Z=3.04, 2.94, 2.92), left cerebellum (Z=2.94), right cerebellum (Z=2.97), left parahippocampal (Z=3.94), right parahippocampal (Z=3.43, 3.00), left insula (Z=3.50), right insula (Z=3.41, 3.80), left lingual (Z=3.37), right lingual (Z=3.30), left post cingulum (Z=2.73), left midioccipital gyrus (Z=2.92) and right miditemporal gyrus (Z=3.05) significantly reduced as the aggravation of gross motor dysfunction (P all<0.005). GMFCS in children with cerebral palsy is related to abnormalities of brain gray matter structure for motor, emotion, memory and default model network when examined with VBM method.
Depression in the context of bipolar disorder (BD) is often misdiagnosed as unipolar depression (UD), leading to mistreatment and poor clinical outcomes. However, little is known about the similarities and differences in interhemispheric functional connectivity between BD and UD. Patients with bipolar II disorder (n = 36) and UD (n = 32) during a depressive episode as well as 40 healthy controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. The functional connectivity between any pair of symmetric interhemispheric voxels (i.e., functional homotopy) was measured by voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC). The three groups showed significant VMHC differences in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), fusiform and lingual gyrus, anterior lobe of the cerebellum (CeAL), and posterior lobe of the cerebellum (CePL). In the BD group, the VMHC decreases in the fusiform/lingual gyrus, CeAL, and CePL were shown relative to controls. In the UD group, the VMHC decreases in the PCC, fusiform/lingual gyrus, and CePL were shown relative to controls. No regions of increased VMHC were detected in either patient group. There was no significant difference in the VMHC values in any brain region between the BD group and the UD group. Depressive episodes in BD and UD have similar impairments of interhemispheric coordination, which might imply an overlap in the neuropathology of depression.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most aggressive malignancies in humans, and its prognosis is generally poor even after surgery. The zinc finger of the cerebellum (ZIC1) gene is a novel tumor suppressor gene that plays a crucial role in vertebrate development. Altered expression of ZIC1 is observed in various types of human cancers. The aims of the present study were to investigate the methylation status of ZIC1 in HCC and evaluate its clinical implication. The methylation status of ZIC1 was analyzed in 132 pairs of HCC and corresponding noncancerous tissues by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (MSP). The expression of ZIC1 messenger RNA (mRNA) in HCC tissues was examined by real-time PCR. Methylation frequency of ZIC1 in HCC was significantly higher than that in the corresponding noncancerous tissues (P < 0.001), and it was correlated with tumor size (P = 0.022), histological differentiation (P = 0.033), and tumor stage (P = 0.009). The downregulation of the ZIC1 mRNA expression in HCC was correlated with the ZIC1 methylation (P < 0.001). The patients with methylated ZIC1 had a poorer overall survival than those without methylated ZIC1 (P < 0.001). Taken together, our results suggested that the hypermethylation may lead to promoter silencing of ZIC1 mRNA and associated with poor survival in HCC. Overall, aberrant methylation is an important mechanism for ZIC1 inactivation in HCC, and ZIC1 methylation may be a promising biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of HCC.
Repeated blast exposures commonly induce traumatic brain injury (TBI) characterized by diffuse axonal injury (DAI). We hypothesized that degradation of cytoskeletal proteins in the brain can lead to DAI, and evaluated α-II spectrin degradation in the pathophysiology of blast-induced TBI using the tightly-coupled three repetitive blast exposure mice model with a 1-30 min window in between exposures. Degradation of α-II spectrin and the expression profiles of caspase-3 and calpain-2, the major enzymes involved in the degradation were analyzed in the frontal cortex and cerebellum using Western blotting with specific antibodies. DAI at different brain regions was evaluated by neuropathology with silver staining. Repeated blast exposures resulted in significant increases in the α-II spectrin degradation products in the frontal cortex and cerebellum compared to sham controls. Expression of active caspase-3, which degrades α-II spectrin, showed significant increase in the frontal cortex after blast exposure at all the time points studied, while cerebellum showed an acute increase which was normalized over time. The expression of another α-II spectrin degrading enzyme, calpain-2, showed a rapid increase in the frontal cortex after blast exposure and it was significantly higher in the cerebellum at later time points. Neuropathological analysis showed significant levels of DAI at the frontal cortex and cerebellum at multiple time points after repeated blast injury. In summary, repeated blast exposure results in specific degradation of α-II spectrin in the brain along with differential expression of caspase-3/calpain-2 suggesting cytoskeletal breakdown as a possible contributor of DAI after repeated blast exposure.
GDF15 (growth/differentiation factor 15), a novel member of the TGFβ (transforming growth factor β) superfamily, plays critical roles in the central and peripheral nervous systems, but the signal transduction pathways and receptor subtypes involved are not well understood. In the present paper, we report that GDF15 specifically increases the IK (delayed-rectifier outward K+ current) in rat CGNs (cerebellar granule neurons) in time- and concentration-dependent manners. The GDF15-induced amplification of the IK is mediated by the increased expression and reduced lysosome-dependent degradation of the Kv2.1 protein, the main α-subunit of the IK channel. Exposure of CGNs to GDF15 markedly induced the phosphorylation of ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase), Akt and mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin), but the GDF15-induced IK densities and increased expression of Kv2.1 were attenuated only by Akt and mTOR, and not ERK, inhibitors. Pharmacological inhibition of the Src-mediated phosphorylation of TGFβR2 (TGFβ receptor 2), not TGFβR1, abrogated the effect of GDF15 on IK amplification and Kv2.1 induction. Immunoprecipitation assays showed that GDF15 increased the tyrosine phosphorylation of TGFβRII in the CGN lysate. The results of the present study reveal a novel regulation of Kv2.1 by GDF15 mediated through the TGFβRII-activated Akt/mTOR pathway, which is a previously uncharacterized Smad-independent mechanism of GDF15 signalling.
The mechanisms of central auditory processing involved in auditory/vestibular injuries and subsequent tinnitus and hearing loss in Active Duty servicemembers exposed to blast are not currently known. We analyzed the expression of hearing-related genes in different regions of the brain 6 h after repeated blast exposures in mice. Preliminary data showed that the expression of the deafness-related genes otoferlin and otoancorin was significantly changed in the hippocampus after blast exposures. Differential expression of cadherin and protocadherin genes, which are involved in hearing impairment, was observed in the hippocampus, cerebellum, frontal cortex, and midbrain after repeated blasts. A series of calcium-signaling genes that are known to be involved in auditory signal processing were also found to be significantly altered after repeated blast exposures. The hippocampus and midbrain showed significant increase in the gene expression of hearing loss-related antioxidant enzymes. Histopathology of the auditory cortex showed more significant injury in the inner layer compared to the outer layer. In summary, mice exposed to repeated blasts showed injury to the auditory cortex and significant alterations in multiple genes in the brain known to be involved in age- or noise-induced hearing impairment.
This study mapped brain activity elicited by high frequency electroacupuncture by simultaneously using blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) contrasts. Forty subjects participated in the study, in which twenty ones were imaged during electrical acupoint stimulation (EAS) to the left LI4 acupoint at a maximal intensity without pain, and the others were with a minimal-EAS at a just detectible intensity. Both BOLD and CBF data were acquired simultaneously during alternating blocks of rest and stimulation. The results showed that the minimal-EAS mostly induced the activities in somatosensory region, including those in inferior parietal lobule, SII, insula, and thalamus. On the other hand, EAS activated more including also posterior middle cingulate cortex (pMCC), and deactivated superior temporal gyrus. Moreover, deactivation was found in posterior cingulated cortex (PCC), precuneus from BOLD and in culmen of cerebellum, caudate from CBF. The comparison between EAS and minimal-EAS revealed deactivation in the default mode network in both BOLD and CBF signals, activation in thalamus, insula, and caudal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in the CBF signal alone, and deactivation in putamen, rostral ACC and parahippocampal gyrus in the BOLD signal alone. This study provides, for the first time, simultaneous CBF and BOLD responses to high frequency EAS at the LI4 acupoint, revealing concordant and complementary insights into the neural effects of EAS, including modulation of subcortical structures and limbic system.
The study aimed to explore the impairment of time perception in migraineurs. Headache is the most common pain syndrome in middle-aged adults, and migraine is highly prevalent and severely disabling. Although the mechanisms of and the therapies for migraines have long been explored, less is known about the functional impairments associated with them, especially the impairment in time perception, that is, the ability to estimate the passage of time. In this study, we used a temporal reproduction task to assess the estimation of the duration of visual stimulus in 27 migraine patients. The stimulus was delivered at different intervals over the milliseconds and seconds range. In the setting of an interstimulus interval for 1 second and an interstimulus interval for 5 seconds in the 600-millisecond-duration reproduction task, the migraineurs showed impairment in time perception, and in that they significantly overestimated the duration, as compared with the healthy subjects. When compared with the healthy controls for the 3-second and 5-second duration reproduction task, migraineurs in the setting of an interstimulus interval for 1 second and an interstimulus interval for 5 seconds did not show impairment in time perception. This study indicates that not only is time perception impaired in migraineurs, but that this impairment is exhibited for durations in the milliseconds range, and not the seconds range.
Members of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family of cytokines are involved in diverse physiological processes. Although TGF-β is known to play multiple roles in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS), its role in neuronal development has not been explored. We have studied the effects of TGF-β1 on the electrophysiological properties and maturation of rat primary cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs). We report that incubation with TGF-β1 increased delayed rectifier potassium current (I(K) ) amplitudes in a dose- and time-dependent manner, but did not affect the kinetic properties of the channel. Exposure to TGF-β1 (20 ng/ml) for 36 h led to a 37.2% increase in I(K) amplitudes. There was no significant change in mRNA levels for the key Kv2.1 channel protein, but translation blockade abolished the increase in protein levels and channel activity, arguing that TGF-β1 increases I(K) amplitudes by upregulating translation of the Kv2.1 channel protein. Although TGF-β1 treatment did not affect the activity of protein kinase A (PKA), and constitutive activation of PKA with forskolin failed to increase I(K) amplitudes, inhibition of PKA prevented channel upregulation, demonstrating that basal PKA activity is required for TGF-β1 stimulation of I(K) channel activity. TGF-β1 also promoted the expression of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA(A) ) receptor α6 subunit, a marker of mature CGNs, and calcium influx during depolarizing stimuli was reduced by TGF-β1. The effects of TGF-β1 were only observed during a narrow developmental time-window, and were lost as CGNs matured. These findings suggest that TGF-β1 upregulates K(+) channel expression and I(K) currents and thereby promotes CGN maturation.
The inflammatory responses accompanying stroke are recognized to contribute to secondary ischemic injury. TIPE2 is a very recently identified negative regulator of inflammation that maintains immune homeostasis. However, it is unknown whether TIPE2 is expressed in the brain and contributes to the regulation of cerebral diseases. In this study, we explored the potential roles of TIPE2 in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. TIPE2(-/-) mice were used to assess whether TIPE2 provides neuroprotection following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and in vitro primary cerebral cell cultures were used to investigate the expression and regulation of TIPE2. Our results show that genetic ablation of the Tipe2 gene significantly increased the cerebral volume of infarction and neurological dysfunction in mice subjected to MCAO. Flow cytometric analysis revealed more infiltrating macrophages, neutrophils, and lymphocytes in the ischemic hemisphere of TIPE2(-/-) mice. The responses to inflammatory cytokines and chemokines were significantly increased in TIPE2(-/-) mouse brain after MCAO. We further observed that TIPE2 was highly induced in WT mice after cerebral ischemia and was expressed mainly in microglia/macrophages, but not in neurons and astrocytes. Finally, we found that regulation of TIPE2 expression was associated with NADPH oxidase activity. These findings demonstrate, for the first time, that TIPE2 is involved in the pathogenesis of stroke and suggest that TIPE2 plays an essential role in a signal transduction pathway that links the inflammatory immune response to specific conditions after cerebral ischemia. Targeting TIPE2 may be a new therapeutic strategy for stroke treatment.
Cholinergic activity has been recognized as a major regulatory component of stress responses after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Centrally acting acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are also being considered as potential therapeutic candidates against TBI mediated cognitive impairments. We have evaluated the expression of molecules involved in cholinergic and inflammatory pathways in various regions of brain after repeated blast exposures in mice. Isoflurane anesthetized C57BL/6J mice were restrained and placed in a prone position transverse to the direction of the shockwaves and exposed to three 20.6 psi blast overpressures with 1-30 min intervals. Brains were collected at the 6h time point after the last blast exposure and subjected to cDNA microarray and microRNA analysis. cDNA microarray analysis showed significant changes in the expression of cholinergic (muscarinic and nicotinic) and gammaaminobutyric acid and glutamate receptors in the midbrain region along with significant changes in multiple genes involved in inflammatory pathways in various regions of the brain. MicroRNA analysis of cerebellum revealed differential expression of miR-132 and 183, which are linked to cholinergic anti-inflammatory signaling, after blast exposure. Changes in the expression of myeloperoxidase in the cerebellum were confirmed by Western blotting. These results indicate that early pathologic progression of blast TBI involves dysregulation of cholinergic and inflammatory pathways related genes. Acute changes in molecules involved in the modulation of cholinergic and inflammatory pathways after blast TBI can cause long-term central and peripheral pathophysiological changes.
A mouse model of repeated blast exposure was developed using a compressed air-driven shock tube, to study the increase in severity of traumatic brain injury (bTBI) after multiple blast exposures. Isoflurane anesthetized C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 13.9, 20.6, and 25 psi single blast overpressure (BOP1) and allowed to recover for 5 days. BOP1 at 20.6 psi showed a mortality rate of 2% and this pressure was used for three repeated blast exposures (BOP3) with 1 and 30 min intervals. Overall mortality rate in BOP3 was increased to 20%. After blast exposure, righting reflex time and body-weight loss were significantly higher in BOP3 animals compared to BOP1 animals. At 4 h, brain edema was significantly increased in BOP3 animals compared to sham controls. Reactive oxygen species in the cortex were increased significantly in BOP1 and BOP3 animals. Neuropathological analysis of the cerebellum and cerebral cortex showed dense silver precipitates in BOP3 animals, indicating the presence of diffuse axonal injury. Fluoro-Jade B staining showed increased intensity in the cortex of BOP3 animals indicating neurodegeneration. Rota Rod behavioral test showed a significant decrease in performance at 10 rpm following BOP1 or BOP3 at 2 h post-blast, which gradually recovered during the 5 days. At 20 rpm, the latency to fall was significantly decreased in both BOP1 and BOP3 animals and it did not recover in the majority of the animals through 5 days of testing. These data suggest that repeated blast exposures lead to increased impairment severity in multiple neurological parameters of TBI in mice.
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) which catalyzes the hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine has been recognized as one of the major regulators of stress responses after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Repeated blast exposure induces TBI (blast TBI) with a variable neuropathology at different brain regions. Since AChE inhibitors are being used as a line of treatment for TBI, we sought to determine the time course of AChE activity in the blood and different brain regions after repeated blast exposures using modified Ellman assay. Our data showed that repeated blast exposures significantly reduced AChE activity in the whole-blood and erythrocytes by 3-6h, while plasma AChE activity was significantly increased by 3h post-blast. In the brain, significant increase in AChE activity was observed at 6h in the frontal cortex, while hind cortex and hippocampus showed a significant decrease at 6h post-blast, which returned to normal levels by 7 days. AChE activity in the cerebellum and mid brain showed a decrease at 6h, followed by significant increase at 3 days and that was decreased significantly at 14 days post-blast. Medulla region showed decreased AChE activity at 24h post-blast, which was significantly increased at 14 days. These results suggest that there are brain regional and time-related changes in AChE activity after tightly coupled repeated blast exposures in mice. In summary, acute and chronic regional specific changes in the AChE activity after repeated blast exposures warrant systematic evaluation of the possibility of AChE inhibitor therapeutics against blast TBI.
When making a difficult choice, people often justify the choice by increasing their liking for the chosen object and decreasing their liking for the rejected object. To uncover the neural signatures of choice justification, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to monitor neural activity when subjects rated their preference for chosen and rejected musical CDs before and after they made their choices. We observed that the trial-by-trial attitude change (i.e., increase of preference for chosen items and decrease of preference for rejected items) was predicted by post-choice activity in the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), right temporal-parietal junction, anterior insula, and bilateral cerebellum. Furthermore, individual difference in choice justification (i.e., increased preference for chosen items minus decreased preference for rejected items) was predicted by post-choice neural activity in the dorsal MPFC, left lateral prefrontal cortex, and right precentral cortex positively. In addition, interdependent self-construal was correlated with decreased activity in the ventral MPFC in the post-choice than pre-choice sessions. These findings suggest that both negative arousal/regulation and self-reflection are associated with choice justification. This provides evidence for the self-threat theory of choice justification.
Several recent studies have reported a strong association between the cerebellar structural and functional abnormalities and psychiatric disorders. However, there are no studies to investigate possible changes in cerebellar functional connectivity in bipolar disorder. This study aimed to examine the whole-brain functional connectivity pattern of patients with remitted bipolar disorder II, in particular in the cerebellum. A total of 25 patients with remitted bipolar disorder II and 25 controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological tests. Voxel-wise whole-brain connectivity was analyzed using a graph theory approach: functional connectivity strength. A seed-based resting-state functional connectivity analysis was further performed to investigate abnormal functional connectivity pattern of those regions with changed functional connectivity strength. Remitted bipolar disorder II patients had significantly decreased functional connectivity strength in the bilateral posterior lobes of cerebellum (mainly lobules VIIb/VIIIa). The seed-based functional connectivity analyses revealed decreased functional connectivity between the right posterior cerebellum and the default mode network (i.e. right posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus and right superior temporal gyrus), bilateral hippocampus, right putamen, left paracentral lobule and bilateral posterior cerebellum and decreased functional connectivity between the left posterior cerebellum and the right inferior parietal lobule and bilateral posterior cerebellum in patients with remitted bipolar disorder II. Our results suggest that cerebellar dysconnectivity, in particular distributed cerebellar-cerebral functional connectivity, might be associated with the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder.
Processing dynamic tactile inputs is a primary function of the somatosensory system. Spatial velocity encoding mechanisms by the nervous system are important for skilled movement production and may play a role in recovery of sensorimotor function following neurological insult. Little is known about tactile velocity encoding in mechanosensory trigeminal networks required for speech, suck, mastication, and facial gesture. High resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate the neural substrates of velocity encoding in the human orofacial somatosensory system during unilateral saltatory pneumotactile stimulation of perioral and buccal hairy skin in 20 neurotypical adults. A custom multichannel, scalable pneumotactile array consisting of 7 TAC-Cells was used to present 5 stimulus conditions: 5cm/s, 25cm/s, 65cm/s, ALL-ON synchronous activation, and ALL-OFF. The spatiotemporal organization of whole-brain blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response was analyzed with general linear modeling (GLM) and fitted response estimates of percent signal change to compare activations associated with each velocity, and the main effect of velocity alone. Sequential saltatory inputs to the right lower face produced localized BOLD responses in 6 key regions of interest (ROI) including; contralateral precentral and postcentral gyri, and ipsilateral precentral, superior temporal (STG), supramarginal gyri (SMG), and cerebellum. The spatiotemporal organization of the evoked BOLD response was highly dependent on velocity, with the greatest amplitude of BOLD signal change recorded during the 5cm/s presentation in the contralateral hemisphere. Temporal analysis of BOLD response by velocity indicated rapid adaptation via a scalability of networks processing changing pneumotactile velocity cues.
Identifying brain differences and similarities between bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) is necessary for increasing our understanding of the pathophysiology and for developing more effective treatments. However, the features of whole-brain intrinsic functional connectivity underlying BD and MDD have not been directly compared. We collected resting-state fMRI data from 48 BD patients, 48 MDD patients, and 51 healthy subjects. We constructed voxel-wise whole-brain functional networks and computed regional functional connectivity strength (FCS) using graph-theory and further divided the regional FCS into long-range FCS (lFCS) and short-range FCS (sFCS). Relative to the controls, both the BD and MDD patients showed decreased sFCS in the bilateral precuneus. In addition, the BD patients showed increased and the MDD patients showed decreased lFCS and sFCS in the bilateral cerebellum. The BD patients also showed increased lFCS in the right middle temporal gyrus and increased sFCS in the bilateral thalamus compared to either the MDD patients or the controls. These findings suggest that BD and MDD may have some shared as well as a greater number of specific impairments in their functional connectivity patterns, providing new evidence for the pathophysiology of BD and MDD at the large-scale whole brain connectivity level.
It is generally agreed that the human brain is responsive to environmental influences, and that the male brain may be particularly sensitive to early adversity. However, this is largely based on retrospective studies of older children and adolescents exposed to extreme environments in childhood. Less is understood about how normative variations in parent-child interactions are associated with the development of the infant brain in typical settings. To address this, we used magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the relationship between observational measures of mother-infant interactions and regional brain volumes in a community sample of 3- to 6-month-old infants (N = 39). In addition, we examined whether this relationship differed in male and female infants. We found that lower maternal sensitivity was correlated with smaller subcortical grey matter volumes in the whole sample, and that this was similar in both sexes. However, male infants who showed greater levels of positive communication and engagement during early interactions had smaller cerebellar volumes. These preliminary findings suggest that variations in mother-infant interaction dimensions are associated with differences in infant brain development. Although the study is cross-sectional and causation cannot be inferred, the findings reveal a dynamic interaction between brain and environment that may be important when considering interventions to optimize infant outcomes.
A few studies have been conducted on the relationship between cerebellar volume and emotional memory or clinical severity in major depressive disorder (MDD). In this study, we aimed to compare the volume and density of the cerebellar gray matter (GM) in patients with MDD and in healthy controls (HCs) and explore the association between these cerebellar parameters and measurements of emotional memory and clinical severity. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and Individual Brain Atlases using Statistical Parametric Mapping (IBASPM) were used to assess GM density and volume in the cerebellum, respectively, in patients with MDD and the HCs. Indicators of emotional memory performance were measured, including the hit rate (HR), rate of false alarm (FA), precision (Pr = HR - FA) and emotional memory enhancement [∆Pr = Pr(emotion) - Pr(neutral)] values. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores were used to measure the severity of depression. In the patients with MDD, the GM density was decreased in three cerebellar cortical regions and increased in three cerebellar cortical regions ( < .005). The GM volumes in eight cerebellar cortical regions were significantly smaller in the patients with MDD than in the HC subjects ( < .05). In the patients with MDD, the GM volume was correlated with the ∆Pr ( < .05) in two cerebellar cortical regions. The BDI scores were significantly correlated with the relative GM densities ( < .05) in 5 cerebellar cortical regions, and the GM volumes in 13 cerebellar cortical regions were correlated with the BDI scores in patients with MDD. Emotional memory and the severity of depressive symptoms are associated with structural changes in both the posterior and anterior GM regions in the cerebellum in patients with MDD. These findings could be useful for improving our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying emotional memory and explaining the abnormalities of the neural correlates that are associated with MDD.
Adult-onset Lhermitte-Duclos disease (LDD) and Cowden syndrome (CS) are considered a single phakomatosis that belongs to PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome (PHTS) now. There is still controversy regarding the diagnosis and treatment. The authors describe the clinical features of LDD and CS with long-term follow up. From January 2001 to January 2017, 18 patients were admitted to the neurosurgery department of Beijing Tiantan Hospital. The authors analyzed the medical records of each patient and followed every case. Seventeen of 18 patients underwent surgery to remove the tumor. The results of pathologic analysis revealed LDD. There was obvious enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 2 patients who received gamma knife and radiotherapy before surgery. During surgery, it is difficult to determine the exact margin. Tumors were removed gross totally in 9 patients, partially in 6 patients, and only subtotally in 2 patients. CS was diagnosed in 11 patients. Two patients received DNA analysis, revealing heterozygous mutation of exon 5 in an 11-year-old girl. There was no recurrence of the tumor during follow-up. LDD has the unique appearance on T2-weighted MRI. The most difficult aspect of surgery is determining the actual margins of the tumor. Total resection is difficult in some patients. There was no tumor recurrence after long-term follow-up in our case series. For pediatric LDD patients, DNA analysis should be performed to rule out CS.
Chemokines and their receptors are of great interest within the milieu of immune responses elicited in the central nervous system in response to trauma. Chemokine (C-C motif)) ligand 2 (CCL2), which is also known as monocyte chemotactic protein-1, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of traumatic brain injury (TBI), brain ischemia, Alzheimer's disease, and other neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we investigated the time course of CCL2 accumulation in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) after exposures to single and repeated blast overpressures of varied intensities along with the neuropathological changes and motor deficits resulting from these blast conditions. Significantly increased concentrations of CCL2 in CSF were evident by 1 h of blast exposure and persisted over 24 h with peak levels measured at 6 h post-injury. The increased levels of CCL2 in CSF corresponded with both the number and intensities of blast overpressure and were also commensurate with the extent of neuromotor impairment and neuropathological abnormalities resulting from these exposures. CCL2 levels in CSF and plasma were tightly correlated with levels of CCL2 messenger RNA in cerebellum, the brain region most consistently neuropathologically disrupted by blast. In view of the roles of CCL2 that have been implicated in multiple neurodegenerative disorders, it is likely that the sustained high levels of CCL2 and the increased expression of its main receptor, CCR2, in the brain after blast may similarly contribute to neurodegenerative processes after blast exposure. In addition, the markedly elevated concentration of CCL2 in CSF might be a candidate early-response biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis of blast-induced TBI.
Neurons in the somatosensory cortex are exquisitely sensitive to mechanical stimulation of the skin surface. The location, velocity, direction, and adaptation of tactile stimuli on the skin's surface are discriminable features of somatosensory processing, however the representation and processing of dynamic tactile arrays in the human somatosensory cortex are poorly understood. The principal aim of this study was to map the relation between dynamic saltatory pneumatic stimuli at discrete traverse velocities on the glabrous hand and the resultant pattern of evoked BOLD response in the human brain. Moreover, we hypothesized that the hand representation in contralateral Brodmann Area (BA) 3b would show a significant dependence on stimulus velocity. Saltatory pneumatic pulses (60 ms duration, 9.5 ms rise/fall) were repetitively sequenced through a 7-channel TAC-Cell array at traverse velocities of 5, 25, and 65 cm/s on the glabrous hand initiated at the tips of D2 (index finger) and D3 (middle finger) and sequenced towards the D1 (thumb). The resulting hemodynamic response was sampled during 3 functional MRI scans (BOLD) in 20 neurotypical right-handed adults at 3T. Results from each subject were inserted to the one-way ANOVA within-subjects and one sample t-test to evaluate the group main effect of all three velocities stimuli and each of three different velocities, respectively. The stimulus evoked BOLD response revealed a dynamic representation of saltatory pneumotactile stimulus velocity in a network consisting of the contralateral primary hand somatosensory cortex (BA3b), associated primary motor cortex (BA4), posterior insula, and ipsilateral deep cerebellum. The spatial extent of this network was greatest at the 5 and 25 cm/s pneumotactile stimulus velocities.
Primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS), is a rare and poorly understood disease mainly characterized by multifocal segmental inflammation of the small and medium vessels of the central nervous system. Most PACNS are multiple lesions, occurring in the supratentorial subcortical and deep white matter, and only a few cases present as a tumor-like mass lesion. Herein, we describe an extremely rare case of PACNS occurred in the cerebellum, which mimicked a cerebellar tumor. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of cerebellar tumor-like PACNS proved by histopathological examination.
Anatomical and functional deficits in the cortico-limbic-cerebellar circuit are involved in the neurobiology of somatization disorder (SD). The present study was performed to examine causal connectivity of the cortico-limbic-cerebellar circuit related to structural deficits in first-episode, drug-naive patients with SD at rest. A total of 25 first-episode, drug-naive patients with SD and 28 healthy controls underwent structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Voxel-based morphometry and Granger causality analysis (GCA) were used to analyze the data. Results showed that patients with SD exhibited decreased gray matter volume (GMV) in the right cerebellum Crus I, and increased GMV in the left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), right middle frontal gyrus (MFG), and left angular gyrus. Causal connectivity of the cortico-limbic-cerebellar circuit was partly affected by structural alterations in the patients. Patients with SD showed bidirectional cortico-limbic connectivity abnormalities and bidirectional cortico-cerebellar and limbic-cerebellar connectivity abnormalities. The mean GMV of the right MFG was negatively correlated with the scores of the somatization subscale of the symptom checklist-90 and persistent error response of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) in the patients. A negative correlation was observed between increased driving connectivity from the right MFG to the right fusiform gyrus/cerebellum IV, V and the scores of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire extraversion subscale. The mean GMV of the left ACC was negatively correlated with the WCST number of errors and persistent error response. Negative correlation was found between the causal effect from the left ACC to the right middle temporal gyrus and the scores of WCST number of categories achieved. Our findings show the partial effects of structural alterations on the cortico-limbic-cerebellar circuit in first-episode, drug-naive patients with SD. Correlations are observed between anatomical alterations or causal effects and clinical variables in patients with SD, and bear clinical significance. The present study emphasizes the importance of the cortico-limbic-cerebellar circuit in the neurobiology of SD.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection significantly affect neurodevelopmental and behavioral outcomes. We investigated whether alterations of gray matter organization and structural covariance networks with vertical HIV infection adolescents exist, by using the GAT toolbox. MRI data were analysed from 25 HIV vertically infected adolescents and 33 HIV-exposed-uninfected control participants. The gray matter volume (GMV) was calculated, and structural brain networks were reconstructed from gray matter co-variance. Gray matter losses were pronounced in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), right pallidum, right occipital lobe, inferior parietal lobe, and bilateral cerebellum crus. The global brain network measures were not significantly different between the groups; however, the nodal alterations were most pronounced in frontal, temporal, basal ganglia, cerebellum, and temporal lobes. Brain hubs in the HIV-infected subjects increased in number and tended to shift to sensorimotor and temporal areas. In the HIV-infected subjects, decreased GMVs in ACC and bilateral cerebellum were related to lower Mini-Mental State Examination scores; the CD4 counts were positively related to the GMVs in ACC and sensorimotor areas. These findings suggest that focally reduced gray matter, disrupted nodal profiles of structural wirings, and a shift in hub distribution may represent neuroanatomical biomarkers of HIV infection on the developing brain.